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Glossary
Each moment of the life cycle of a domain name is identified in one or more "Statuses", which exemplify the operative status of the domain, e.g. "OK" for those registered and active, and any future transition, e.g. "Pending Transfer" for those for which a transfer procedure is in progress.

In the table below, there are all the Statuses in which it is possible to find the .it domains and the definitions. To check the Status of a registered domain, connect to the site nic.it and launch a whois.
 
STATO DEFINIZIONE
Ok Registered and active domain, available for any procedure.
AutoRenewPeriod Period of 15 days during which domains not renewed by midnight on their expiry date are added.
Bulk-Transfer Transfer of a significant number of domain names between two Registrars.
ClientTransferProhibited A restriction imposed by the Registrar to prevent the transfer of the domain name to another Registrar. The Registrar can only veto the change of Provider if it has received, for that domain name, an order from the competent Authorities using the statutory forms.
ClientUpdateProhibited A restriction imposed by the Registrar, only if substantive reasons are given to prevent any changes to a domain. The only operation permitted is the removal of said restriction.
Inactive/clientHold Status in which the domain is placed and for which the Registrar has suspended its operations and prevented any modification procedure, following the opening of judiciary proceedings on the domain concerning its use and/or assignment.
In these cases, the only procedure allowed is the removal of the "clientHold" by the Registrar.
Inactive/noRegistrar Status of 60 days approximately to which the domain names that have reached their expiry are added if:
  • he Registrar no longer has an active contract with the Registry.
  • A "Registrar Modification" procedure ended unsuccessfully after the autoRenewPeriod.
The only procedures allowed are: Registrar modification (possibly concurrent to a Registrant modification) by the Registrant, or the recovery of the domain name by the Registrar if the latter has an active contract with the Registry.
Inactive/notRenewed A domain name that has expired and hasn't been automatically renewed due to the Registrar's insufficient credit. Domain names in such Statuses, lasting around 30 days, are automatically recovered as soon as the Registrar's credit allows it.
The only procedures allowed are the automatic recovery by the system as soon as the Registrar's credit allows it and the Registrar's modification (possibly concurrent to a Registrant's modification) by the Registrant.
Inactive/revoked Domain name revoked by the Register and not immediately available to be reassigned.
Inactive/serverHold A domain for which the Registry found it necessary to prohibit any operation while keeping data unchanged.
Inactive/toBeReassigned Domain name for which a reassignment or opposition procedure has ended successfully. The domain name can be registered within 30 (thirty) days, only by whom started the opposition.
Ok/noRegistrar Domain name for which the Registrar no longer has an active contract with the Registry. The Domain remains in the same status until expiry. The only procedure allowed is Registrar modification (possibly concurrent to the Registrant's modification) by the Registrant.
PendingDelete/redemptionPeriod Domain registered for which the Registrar has requested a cancellation procedure on behalf of the Registrant. The only procedure allowed is the recovery by the Registrar within 30 (thirty) days after switching to this status.
PendingDelete/pendingDelete A period of five days before the final cancellation of the domain name from the nic.it database.
PendingTransfer Domain for which a Registrar modification procedure is in progress. The previous Registrar can only veto the change of Provider if it has received, for that domain, an order from the competent Authorities using the statutory forms. The Domain remains in the same status for one day. If within this time the change of Registrar has not been expressly cancelled by the new Registrar or rejected by the previous Registrar, the transfer is automatically approved by the Registry.
PendingTransfer/Bulk Domain for which a Bulk Transfer procedure is in progress.
PendingUpdate Domain for which a request for the modification of authoritative nameservers has been made and a successful DNS configuration check is pending. The Domain remains in the same status for up to 5 (five) days. If within that period the new DNS configuration is not successfully validated by the Registry, it will be abandoned the Domain will return to the previous status.
ServerDeleteProhibited A restriction imposed by the Registry to prevent the cancellation of a domain name.
ServerTransferProhibited A restriction imposed by the Registry to prevent the transfer of the domain to another Registrar.
ServerUpdateProhibited A restriction imposed by the Registry to prevent any changes to a domain name.
Unassignable The domain name can't be assigned to any registrant.
Application Programming Interface - A set of software instructions that developers use to access operating system functions and individual hardware components. APIs intervene between the system hardware and the application software.
Application Programming Interface - A set of software instructions that developers use to access operating system functions and individual hardware components. APIs intervene between the system hardware and the application software.
Application Programming Interface - A set of software instructions that developers use to access operating system functions and individual hardware components. APIs intervene between the system hardware and the application software.
Application Programming Interface - A set of software instructions that developers use to access operating system functions and individual hardware components. APIs intervene between the system hardware and the application software.
A user who successfully logs into a website using authentication. The authentication must be written as in ASP.NET authentication forms, otherwise, in database mechanisms, it will not be considered as authentication. Authentication is usually managed in the web server.
The Authinfo, Authorization Code for .it and .eu Domains, Authcode for .com, .org, .biz, .net, .info, .cc, .us, .tv, .name Domains, is the unique code identifying a Domain and it is essential to perform operations on the Domain Name, e.g. Registrant (Holder) Transfer or Modification.
For Domains with a .it and .eu extension, a Domain Name is assigned upon Registration. For .com .net .org .biz .info .us .cc extensions, the Domain Name is assigned after Registration.

The Authinfo code can only be provided by the Provider with which the Domain is registered (the request procedures for Domains registered with Aruba are specified in the specific guide).
Provided upon filling in the "Billing Details" form, they are used for fiscal purposes, to issue invoices or other accounting documents. They can either coincide with or differ from the Holder Details and Registration Details.
A type of graph that highlights the trends as a line graph, but through coloured areas. If the Statistics service and, therefore, the SmarterStats Control Panel are used, the first 10 results will be used to create the chart area. All the other results are grouped as "other items".
CMSes (Content Management Systems) are software tools installed on a web server with the purpose of facilitating the management of website contents without requiring specific technical skills concerning Web development. There are specialized CMSes, specifically designed for a certain type of content (e.g. online encyclopedias, blogs, forums, magazines) and general CMSes, which provide more flexibility to publish various types of content.
The CRO and TRN are references that are directly assigned by your own bank. If at least one of them is not specified in the Bank Transfer receipt, you should request it from the Bank, if the Aruba staff recommends doing so to speed up the Processing of the economic transaction.
  • The CRO (Codice Riferimento Operazione / Transaction Reference Code) is an 11-digit code. There is a different code for each bank transaction made, which helps to quickly identify each transaction. The eleven digits are different for each client; therefore, a specific CRO unmistakably corresponds to a single client and specific transactions.
  • The TRN (Transaction Reference Number) is a sequence of 30 alphanumeric characters, whose digits contain the CRO, more precisely from the 6th to the 16th character.
The Default Email Account or Catch All is an email account that is used as an error container. This means that messages from non-existent users (SPAM) and all incorrect messages sent (i.e. messages sent from non-existent domain accounts) will be archived in this account.
DENIC (.de Network Information Center) is the Registry of the .de TLD (Germany) based in Frankfurt.
Acronym of Domain Name System, it can be viewed as a virtual address book that organizes and identifies Domains. It is the protocol that enables the translation of a website Name into its corresponding IP Address and vice versa. The operation that enables the conversion of a Name into an IP address is called DNS Resolution, whereas the reverse operation is called Reverse.

When an address is typed in the web browser, the DNS will carry out a search in one of its lists to find the IP address corresponding to the real address of that Domain on the web.

The storage where IP -> site name matches and vice versa are collected is called Root DNS or Root Nameserver. Each Domain has set up 2 or more so-called Authoritative Name Servers with its Authority.
A domain name (or simply domain) is a sequence of letters and numbers, combined according to the user's imagination, linked to a physical IP address on the Internet, which univocally identifies a website name, i.e. the part following the symbol @ in email addresses or after www. in web addresses.

The www.aruba.it domain name is the alphabetic translation of the 62.149.128.8 IP address. Therefore, if you type the website name (www.aruba.it) or the IP address (62.149.128.8) in a browser, you will always go to the same website. Using a domain name makes it easier to memorize and type website addresses.
To ensure unequivocal matches between IP addresses and domain names, there is a virtual storage (database), which contains all the registered domains. Registering a domain name consists in performing the necessary procedures to add it to this database and therefore be sure to be the only users. Consequently, each domain name is linked to a natural person, company, organization or body, which becomes the Holders.

A Domain Name consists of:
www (alias) sequence of letters and numbers, e.g. .aruba (Second Level Domain) URL ending, series of letters following the final dot of an Internet address, e.g. .it (TLD - Top Level Domain).
This program allows you to manage the composition, organization, and consultation of personal emails by the service user. It is often pre-installed on your computer as a basic application, but you can use the email client that is more suitable for your purposes, choosing from the wide selection offered by the network. To use email clients, you need to set up the account using the parameters provided by the email service provider.
EURid is a Non-Profit Organization selected by the European Commission to operate as Registry of the .EU Top Level Domain. Its headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and there are other 3 regional offices:
  • The Northern Regional based in Stockholm, Sweden, which performs registrations for Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the UK, and Ireland.
  • The Southern Regional Office based in Pisa (nic.it) which performs registrations for Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Malta, Cyprus, and Slovenia.
  • The Eastern Regional Office based in Prague, the Czech Republic, which performs registrations for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland.
The headers of a message are data regarding the author of the message. In order to display them, access the properties of the email received. This operation can be performed via any email program or the Aruba WebMail panel. For further details, read the article.
It is a request to another website for a file such as an image, a web page or a CGI script. A web page can contain several matching resources and, as a result, a visitor who views a web page can trigger several hits. The hits generated as the result of an error (including the 400 and 500 error) are not considered as actual website hits, and are kept separate from successful hits.
Concerning the Registrant, i.e. the individual (natural or legal entity) who requests the registration to a domain and is granted one. Provided upon filling in the "Holder Details" form, they identify the owner of the domain, who is, therefore, the only person responsible for using the domain and its services. This information is stored by the competent Authority, by extension, in its own databases. They can either coincide with or differ from Registration and Billing Details.
Acronym of Internet Corporation for Assigned Name and Numbers, it is the Non-profit Organization that has the task of assigning IP addresses, managing the Domain Name System for a specific TLD, the storage, and primary name servers. ICANN has also the task of monitoring all the operations that involve the Internet at a global level, ensuring its security and stability, as well as coordinating the DNS management.
Acronym of Internet Protocol, it univocally identifies each computer (or device) connected to the web that uses a TCP/IP protocol, providing the path to reach the device. Each registered domain name has its own IP Address, therefore, by typing the domain name or IP Address, you will obtain the same result.

For instance, if you enter the www.aruba.it address or the 62.149.188.157 physical IP, you will be directed to the same page.

IP addresses can be:

Dynamic: They are dynamically and automatically assigned by a DHCP server (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) in a LAN network from a series of available addresses.

Static: They are addresses that remain unchanged over time.
Keyloggers are programs that "listen" to what is typed on the keyboard, including passwords. This type of malicious software can almost exclusively be found on Windows systems and it can be removed with an Antivirus software.
A Malware is a type of virus that has the main purpose of gathering various types of login details and other sensitive data or "identities", e.g. details of credit cards, online current accounts (home banking or PayPal), eBay Accounts, and social network Accounts such as Facebook, Twitter.
In addition, Malware also searches for login details to email accounts (in particular, Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo Mail), FTP login details, login details to dedicated or company servers.

Various types of Malware, in addition to gathering and transmitting the login details mentioned above, also try to compromise the attacked PC so that it is possible to fully control it externally. In this case, they are generally called "Trojan horses".
If this happens, the infected PC is defined as a "Zombie" and it becomes part of the so-called "botnets", e.g. large PC networks that can be controlled by the attackers, and at their disposal to carry out destructive attacks (e.g. DDoS) or to send large quantities of email spam messages.

Compared to traditional viruses, a Malware differs in terms of some fundamental aspects such as its purpose, spreading techniques and difficulty to remove it. Indeed, a Malware will not compromise the functioning of a PC as traditional viruses do. On the contrary, they need the attacked PC to remain perfectly efficient, especially if it will be used as a zombie. In addition, a Malware is generally spread via compromised websites and spam, and therefore, it can be changed very often and doesn't need to be able to self-replicate and spread, making it more difficult to recognize and identify it. Some Malware is even disguised as miraculous antivirus software.
 
The "over-quota status" message indicates that the space available in your mailbox has run out. In similar cases, it is not possible to receive your emails. To solve this problem, we recommend two alternatives:
  • Log into your WebMail with your account details and delete emails messages. Before performing this procedure, you should backup the more important emails, because it will not be possible to recover them.
  • Or set up the email client without using the setting that allows you to "Save the messages on the server".
It is a patented Google method that uses an analysis algorithm to measure the importance of a web page. PageRank values go from 0 to 10, 10 being the best value. Even if PageRank reports don't indicate a specific page, the PageRank specified in SmarterStats may only be for the homepage of your website.
They are unwanted or potentially dangerous emails, also known as fraudulent messages. The common purpose of these messages is to induce recipients to reply, indicating their personal information, such as passwords or credit card numbers.
The postmaster@domainname.ext account type can be used to receive and send personal mail. Unlike standard accounts, through the Aruba WebMail Control Panel, you can manage all the customized settings for the five accounts connected to the domain: setting up, editing, managing and deleting accounts, aliases, autoresponders, mailing lists and much more.

Pre-configuration, in the event your Domain is transferred from another Provider to Aruba-REG, allows you to maintain visibility through the Domain name of the website and email services reachability, on the previous Provider, until the switch, when you decide to publish what is pre-configured by clicking the "Publish" button in the Control Panel.

In the meantime, you can pre-configure your email and the Domain on the new Aruba space, although it will not be visible online.

The procedures involved in configuring services must be completed within 30 days after receiving the notification from Aruba. If the content preconfigured has not been published within 30 days, this is done automatically by Aruba.
 
A query item is a single parameter passed to a web page, generally a script.
A query item is a single parameter passed to a web page, generally a script.
The Registrant is the natural person, company, body or association requesting the registration of the domain name, and to whom it was granted.
The Registrar is the provider of the service who has a contract with the Registries based on which it can manage and resell 2nd-level domain names. The Registrar is always an intermediary towards the Registry for all domain name registration procedures. Aruba is the Registrar of .it and .eu domains and Reseller of other domains including .com, .net, .biz, .org, .info. The Registrar that Aruba uses to register these domains is OpenSRS.
This status indicates, for domain Names with an extension different than .it and .eu, that the domain is locked and it is not possible to perform any operation on it, e.g. Transfer. The unlocking process must be performed following the procedure envisaged by the Provider/Registrar that manages it (in the case of domains registered with Aruba-REG the procedures are described in the specific guide).
In connection with the registration to Aruba.it, these details are provided when filling in the "Login/Registration" form and stored in the Aruba database, pursuant to applicable regulations concerning personal data processing, with the client's agreement; said details identify the holder of a pair of Login Credentials(123456@aruba.it login-type and Password), are required to purchase on Aruba.it and autonomously manage the services purchased, enabling FTP access and content publication, access to the Client Area, to your Control Panel, to the Payments and Billing websites, access to the Renewal Area as well as the Edit Registration Details section. They can either coincide with or differ from the Holder and Billing Details.
It is the Registry authorized by ICANN to manage the assignment of .it domain names. It can be considered as the register of domain names with the .it extension because it is in charge of establishing rules and procedures to assign domain names, manage registers and primary TLD nameservers. The Registration of domain names can't be performed directly on Registro.it, but you should contact a Registrant.
The Registry is the body (Authority) in charge of granting domain names, managing storage and domain primary name servers. For instance, the registry for Italy is Registro .it, for Europe RIPE (Réseaux IP Européens) and for the United States InterNic.
Spamming, commonly known as Spam is the sending of unwanted, malicious email messages. The purpose of these messages is to induce recipients to reply, providing their personal details, such as passwords or credit card numbers. Spammers often use false senders that seem to come from companies or people known to the victim. For further details,read the article.
A spider is an automatic program that searches and indexes websites, usually with aim of providing information to search engines.
The SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a protocol used to establish secure communications between a Server and a Client. This system not only ensures the protection of data transmission, e.g. credit card numbers, online forms, and financial data but also protects from the decoding and counterfeiting of all confidential, reserved or sensitive information.

SSL Certificates consist of a public key and a private key. The first key is used to encrypt information, whereas the second key is used to decipher it.
When the connection between a client and a server is made (handshaking phase), there is the transfer of a session key, which varies depending on the client's and server features and is used to encrypt data in transit between client and server during a specific session.
It is a secure connection since the data transmitted during the connection is encrypted and can be only deciphered at the time of the connection: they can't be intercepted or interpreted by others that are not involved in the connection.
TLDs (Top Level Domain) can be identified as the extension of Top-Level Domain Names, i.e. the ending of the URL, the series of letters that follow the final dot of an Internet address or, for instance, .it.
Acronym of Uniform Resource Locator, it is the address that univocally identifies a resource (e.g. HTML pages, files, images) on the Internet.
The Aruba WebMail is a multi-function panel that can be accessed by all mobile devices and is used to check any Aruba mailbox (e.g. @aruba.it, @technet.it, @domainname.ext and postmaster@domainname.ext). The Login interface can be reached at webmail.aruba.it.

For further details, read the user guides.
Whois is a virtual storage containing all the information regarding:
  • The registered Domain Name (e.g. its status or date of creation).
  • The Registrant, i.e. individuals, bodies or associations that are the Holders of the Domain, their addresses, telephone numbers, and emails.
  • The Registrar, the Provider to which a specific IP or DNS address belongs.
Regulation (EU) 2016/679, known as GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing and free movement of personal data will apply in all Member States as of 25 May 2018.

Pursuant to this Regulation, the information about the Domain Name Holders will not be made publicly available. The only exceptions to this are .it Domains for which data controllers can request the publishing of their personal details to make them visible to anybody who consults public Whois records, the publicly accessible databases containing details about Domain Name Holders (further information about the publishing of personal information concerning Domain Holders is available in the appropriate guide).

To perform a Whois, access the competent Authority's site for the Domain extension and select Whois.